Basalt Stones-Formation Process, Properties and Uses

Basalt Stones-Formation Process, Properties and Uses

Basalt stones are extrusive type stones that are of igneous or volcanic rock with very low silica. It has got a very rich and high amount of iron and magnesium. Being rich in iron makes the basalt stones attain a dark color texture. 

A dark basalt stone is highly rich in mainly iron and a few other deposits. This type of stone finds its use in the textile industries and for fire protection purposes in building construction projects. It has loads of other uses in different industries that we will check out in the below sections. 

As for now, we will focus more on the formation of the basalt stones and a few more important information on basalt

More on Basalt Stones

So as you might know that the basalt stones are formed during lava emission and they quickly cool down to form basalt stones. Now there is one major point to understand here and i.e. almost 90% of all the volcanic rock deep below the earth’s crust is a volcanic rock and during a volcanic eruption would emit basalt stones. Now basalt has a presence not only on earth but also on other planets in the solar system. A common type of basalt stone is found on Mars in Luna Maria. Scientists predict and make calculations that there are more than 20 volcanic eruptions every year that emits only basalt lava. 

Basalt Formation Process 

#1. Under Oceanic Divergent Borders: The Earth’s tectonic plates and boundaries in the oceans form ridges. Due to the convection currents in the mantle region, the Earth’s crust erupts below the sea bed ad forms the basalt rocks after cooling down. These activities occur way below the ocean floor bed and we cannot detect them even on seismic readings too. After all, it does not garner too many vibrations because it is so below the earth’s crust. 

#2. Oceanic Hotspots: The oceanic hotspots also form a lot of basalt stones. The oceanic hotspots form huge volumes of basalt stones.  The magma keeps flowing at a constant rate and accumulates to form an island. 

#3. Continental Volcanic Activity: The dark basalt stones are formed as a result of large vents and fissures that form and deposits large amounts of basalt lava. Such high amounts of basalt lava secretion will ultimately lead to the formation of vertical stacks and columns. 

#4. Basalt Rock Cycle: The basaltic magma is pulled out of the Earth’s crust and this slowly sinks into the magma and this ends its cycle right where it began. 

Properties of Basalt Stones 

#1. Hardness: The basalt stones come in the category of strong to very strong. The compressive strength of the basalt stones is 100 to 300 MPa.  The shear strength is 20 to 60 MP a while the tensile strength is 10 to 30 MPa. 

#2. Density: The density of the basalt stones is very high and this can be seen through the porousness of the rock. The bulk density of the basalt stones is around 2.8 to 3 Magormegagram per meter cube. This is because almost 50% of the rock is made out of silica. 


The basalt stones have been used since ancient times from the beginning of the Roman Empire that found the basalt stones to be too hard. These were used extensively throughout the term for manufacturing roads and making various public places such as amphitheaters and stadiums. The basalt stones are also used in the mills for the grinding process. A common example of this is the rosette stone. The construction industry also uses basalt rocks for constructing pavements, railroads, concrete mixtures, drainage projects, etc.

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